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Apa sih Serat Itu?

Anda tentu sering mendengar istilah makanan berserat. Namun tidak banyak yang tahu apa sih serat yang dimaksud. Serat adalah karbohidrat kompleks yang terkandung dalam bahan makanan nabati. Serat tidak dapat dicerna, tetapi sangat dibutuhkan untuk perawatan kesehatan serta pencegahan penyakit.

Serat terbagi atas 2 golongan besar, yaitu:
  1. Serat Larut Air: seratyang larut dalam air kemudian membentuk gel dalam saluran pencernaan dengan cara menyerap air.
  2. Serat tidak larut: serat yang tidak larut dalam air, namun memiliki kemampuan menyerap air dan meningkatkan teksture dalam volume tinja.

Dari seluruh makanan berserat yang ada, hampir seluruhnya terdiri dari kombinasi kedua jenis serat tersebut di atas. Namun komposisi serat tidak larut air umumnya lebih dominan dibanding serat yang larut air.

Risiko Bila Kurang Mengkonsumsi Serat

Rata-rata konsumsi serat penduduk Indonesia adalah 10,5 gram (Puslitbang Gizi Depkes RI tahun 2001). Anjuran konsumsi serat untuk dewasa per hari adalah 25-35 gram.

Resiko kurang konsumsi serat antara lain:

  1. Konstipasi/sulit buang air besar,
  2. Wasir,
  3. Kegemukan,
  4. Penyakit jantung koroner dan stroke
  5. Kanker usus.

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